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Research

Repeated studies yielding comparable effects

Some of these experimental models were independently investigated by different researchers, with comparable results:

- Results on potentised silver nitrate were confirmed by others.

Kolisko L (1926). Physiologischer und physikalischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster Entitäten bei sieben Metallen. Dornach: Goetheanum Verlag.

Pongratz W, Endler PC (1994). Reappraisal of a classical botanical experiment in ultra high dilution research. In: Endler PC, Schulte J (eds). Ultra High Dilution: Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 121–128.

Pongratz W, Nograsek A, Endler PC (1998). Highly diluted agitated silver nitrate and wheat seedling development. Effect kinetics of a process of successive agitation phases. In: Schulte J, Endler PC (eds). Fundamental Research in Ultra High Dilution and Homeopathy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 155–187.

- Results on potentised arsenic were confirmed by the same working group.

Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M (1997). Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 86–89.

Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M, Betti L (2000). Statistical analysis of the effect of high dilutions of arsenic in a large dataset from a wheat germination model. British Homeopathic Journal, 89: 63–67. [PubMed]

Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Nani D, Borghini F, Peruzzi M, Betti L (2005). A biostatistical insight into the As(2)O(3) high dilution effects on the rate and variability of wheat seedling growth. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 12:277–283. [PubMed]

Nani D, Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Betti L (2007). The role of variability in evaluating ultra high dilution effects: considerations based on plant model experiments. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 14: 301–305. [PubMed]

- Results on potentised gibberellic acid and dwarf peas were confirmed by the same working group for one specific seed lot.

Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2004). Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11: 281–292. [PubMed]

Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kämpfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2008). Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16: 183–191. [PubMed]

- Results on potentised gibberellic acid and wheat were confirmed by the same working group.

Pfleger A (2008). Weizenkeimung unter dem Einfluss von homöopathisch zubereitetem Gibberellin (D30). Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Hofäcker J (2008). Der Einfluss der Intervalldauer bei der Herstellung ultrahochverdünnter homöopathischer Präparate (homöopathische Hochpotenzen). Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Reich C (2009). Über den Umgang mit hochpotenzierten Lösungen, Untersuchungen am Saatgutmodell. Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Repeated studies resulting in different effects

Other intents of reproduction led to interesting, statistically significant, but modified results:

- A different result was found compared to Betti et al. on potentised arsenic for meta-analysis of all experiments.

Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M (1997). Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 86–89.

Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A (2005). The effects of a 45x potency of Arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth – a reproduction trial. Forschende Komplementärmedizin, 12: 284–291.[PubMed]

Lahnstein L, Binder M, Thurneysen A, Frei-Erb M, Betti L, Peruzzi M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S (2009). Isopathic treatment effects of Arsenicum album 45x on wheat seedling growth – further reproduction trials. Homeopathy, 98: 189–207.[PubMed]

- A different result was found on potentised gibberellic acid compared to Baumgartner et al. for one specific seed lot of dwarf peas.

Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2004). Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11: 281–292.[PubMed]

Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kämpfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2008). Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16: 183–191.[PubMed]

- A different result was found on potentised gibberellic acid compared to Pfleger for wheat growth at different times of the year.

Pfleger A (2008). Weizenkeimung unter dem Einfluss von homöopathisch zubereitetem Gibberellin (D30). Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Thieves K (2009). Einfluss von homöopathisch zubereitetem Gibberellin (10–30) auf die Sprosslänge bei unterschiedlichen Gewichtsgrössen von Weizensaatgut. Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Reischl T (2009). Wirkung mentaler Projektion auf Ultrahochverdünnungen. Ein Weizenkeimungs-Gibberellin-Homöopathie-Experiment. Thesis (MSc), Interuniversitäres Kolleg, Graz.

Repeated studies yielding no effect

Further studies did not reveal any significant effects:

- Effects of potentised copper sulfate compared to Graviou et al.

Graviou E, Biron MA (1971). Action d’une 15e CH de sulfate de cuivre sur la culture des Chlorella vulgaris. Annales Homéopathiques Françaises, 7: 539–548.

Moss VA, Roberts JA, Simpson HKL (1977). The effect of copper sulphate on the growth of the alga Chlorella. British Homeopathic Journal, 66: 169–176.

- Effects of potentised silver nitrate (one researcher in a multicentre trial) compared to Kolisko.

Kolisko L (1926). Physiologischer und physikalischer Nachweis der Wirksamkeit kleinster Entitäten bei sieben Metallen. Dornach: Goetheanum Verlag.

Pongratz W, Nograsek A, Endler PC (1998). Highly diluted agitated silver nitrate and wheat seedling development. Effect kinetics of a process of successive agitation phases. In: Schulte J, Endler PC (eds). Fundamental Research in Ultra High Dilution and Homeopathy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 155–187.

- Effects of potentised arsenic compared to Betti et al. for single experimental series.

Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M (1997). Effect of high dilutions of Arsenicum album on wheat seedlings from seed poisoned with the same substance. British Homeopathic Journal, 86: 86–89.

Lahnstein L, Binder M, Thurneysen A, Frei-Erb M, Betti L, Peruzzi M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S (2009). Isopathic treatment effects of Arsenicum album 45x on wheat seedling growth – further reproduction trials. Homeopathy, 98: 189–207.[PubMed]

- Effects of potentised gibberellic acid compared to Baumgartner et al. for two specific seed lots.

Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2004). Growth stimulation of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) through homeopathic potencies of plant growth substances. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 11: 281–292.[PubMed]

Baumgartner S, Shah D, Schaller J, Kämpfer U, Thurneysen A, Heusser P (2008). Reproducibility of dwarf pea shoot growth stimulation by homeopathic potencies of gibberellic acid. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 16: 183–191.[PubMed]

Full article on repeated individual high potency studies: 

Endler P, Thieves K, Reich C, Matthiessen P, Bonamin L, Scherr C, Baumgartner S (2010). Repetitions of fundamental research models for homeopathically prepared dilutions beyond 10(-23): a bibliometric study. Homeopathy, 99:25-36. [PubMed]